The intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it

Artificial Intelligence Journal

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Artificial Intelligence Authors: Corey Roth, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Yeshim Deniz, Kevin Benedict

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The Dreyfus Model - Back In The Spotlight?

The Dreyfus Model shows the 5 stages of skill acquisition possible through experience of a subject.

Created by Hubert and Stuart Dreyfus in 1980 while researching AI, the model was popularized by Dr Patricia Benner in the mid Eighties in her work on the Nursing Crisis in the US. Over the last few years this model has been resurrected in the Software Industry, primarily by Andy Hunt of Pragmatic Programmer fame. 

The graph shows that in the Software Industry (as with all subjects), most people achieve a level of ‘Absolute Beginner’ or ‘Competent’, with few moving to ‘Proficient’ and fewer to ‘Expert’. The graph also reflects that as you move up the model the need for rules and best practices diminishes to the point where they actually become a hindrance.


With the huge shortfall in supply of Software Developers combined with the quality issues our industry faces, surely it is better to keep the small percentage of people at the top of this model rather than move them on to management? (As so often happens.)

I caught up with Andy Hunt at the recent Better Software Conference to ask him to discuss this and explain further how this model applies to mentoring team members and where ‘best practices’ fit.

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